J. Phys. I France 1 (1991) 1665-1668
On the failure of water to freeze from its surfaceMichael Elbaum and M. Schick
Department of Physics FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195, U.S.A.
(Received 12 August 1991, accepted 9 October 1991)
We show that water in equilibrium is not expected to freeze from its surface inward, contrary to the expectation of elementary theories. We do this in two ways; by utilizing a recent calculation of the interfacial energy of the ice/water interface, and by an explicit calculation of the surface free energy of a water/vapor interface which incorporates a film of ice.
© Les Editions de Physique 1991